Babystep1: Your first boot sector
Your first boot sector.
The following code is the smallest possible example of booting code from a floppy.
; boot.asm hang: jmp hang times 512-($-$$) db 0
The CPU starts in real mode and the BIOS loads this code at address 0000:7c00. The "times 512..." stuff is NASM's way of saying fill up 512 bytes with zeros. And partcopy is going to expect that (200 in Hex = 512 in Decimal). Change it and you'll see Partcopy choke.
Often, you will see a so-called boot signature (0xAA55) at the end. Older versions of BIOSes looked for this in order to identify a boot sector on a disk. It is evidently unnecessary nowadays. If it's needed, the last line would be replaced with (or some version of it)
; boot.asm hang: jmp hang times 510-($-$$) db 0 ; 2 bytes less now db 0x55 db 0xAA
But the thing I'd really like to point out is how once you've booted, and the cursor is happily blinking on a blank screen, you might notice two things. One is that the floppy motor will turn off and the other is that you can press Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot. The point is that interrupts (such as INT 0x09) as still being generated.
For kicks try clearing the interrupts flag:
;boot.asm cli hang: jmp hang times 510-($-$$) db 0 db 0x55 db 0xAA
You may notice that the floppy motor doesn't turn off and you can't reboot with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
If you try to reduce this even more by removing the loop and merely pad out the sector with zeros, the BIOS will have something to say about it. On my machine, it was "Operating System Not Found". I have yet to try filling the sector with zeros except for adding a boot signature.
Not exactly something you would show your friends, but I wanted to show just what the bare minimum is before I elaborate. Unless I'm irritating anyone, in which case I'll desist.
Creating disk image
The code is assembled in NASM and copied to floppy using partcopy,dd,or debug. Then you simply boot from the floppy.
nasmw boot.asm -f bin -o boot.bin partcopy boot.bin 0 200 -f0 OR debug boot.bin -W 100 0 0 1 -Q
nasm boot.asm -f bin -o boot.bin dd if=boot.bin of=/dev/fd0