There are several OS development related tutorials on this wiki. This page gives you a nice overview of tutorials that are around, based on subject area and difficulty.
Setting up long mode - Switching to long mode.
Creating a 64-bit kernel - An introduction to 64-bit kernels
64-bit Higher Half Kernel with GRUB 2 - Higher half kernel with GRUB 2
JamesM's kernel development tutorials - Roll your own toy UNIX-clone OS
These are "bare bones" tutorials that will land you with a basic kernel that's safe enough to use as a starting point for your own.
Real mode assembly bare bones - A tutorial series on writing a basic assembly language kernel
Bare bones - A tutorial on writing a basic kernel in C
C++ Bare Bones - A basic kernel in C++
Pascal Bare Bones - A basic kernel in Pascal
Ada Bare bones - A tutorial on writing a basic kernel in Ada
FreeBasic Bare Bones - A basic kernel in FreeBasic
Higher Half bare bones - A basic kernel with paging that runs at the 3GB mark rather than the 1MB mark
Higher Half With GDT - An alternative kernel running at 3GB with segmentation rather than paging
We also have bare bones for other platforms
GameBoy Advance Barebones - A tutorial on writing a basic GBA kernel
Sparc Barebones - A basic kernel for SparcStations
How to create a basic kernel in assembly
Babystep1 - Your first boot sector.
Babystep2 - Writing a message using the BIOS.
Babystep3 - A look at machine code
Babystep4 - Printing to the screen without the BIOS
Babystep5 - Interrupts
Babystep6 - Entering protected mode
Babystep7 - Unreal Mode
Babystep8 - 32-bit printing
Appendix A - Additional information
Setting Up Paging - A tutorial that deals with setting up and maintaining a system with paging enabled
Setting Up Paging With PAE - As above, but with PAE enabled
Writing a memory manager - A tutorial on how to handle the RAM in a computer.
Writing A Page Frame Allocator - How to write a simple page frame allocator
Graphics & Video
Double Buffering - A handy way to prevent artifacts.
Bootable CD - A tutorial that explains how to create your own bootable CD
Bootable El-Torito CD with GRUB Legacy - A tutorial that explains how to create your own bootable GRUB CD
Rolling Your Own Bootloader - Describes what steps to take when you write your own bootloader.
Writing a bootloader - A basic tutorial about rolling your own bootloader.
Writing a bootloader for UEFI - If you want to roll your own UEFI bootloader, this will be helpful.
Makefile - A guided demonstration of how you can use Makefiles
OS Specific Toolchain - A guide on adapting GCC and Binutils to your platform
Microsoft C/C++ Optimizing Compiler Build Environment on Linux - A guide on configuring a complete build environment with Microsoft C/C++ Optimizing Compiler (included in Visual C++) on UNIX-compatible platforms.
CMake Build System - A guide demonstrating adapting KitWare's CMake Build System for building your operating system.
GCC Cross-Compiler - A guide that helps you create a compiler suited for OS development.
GDC Cross-Compiler - Same as the previous, but this time for the D programming language.
Executable File Formats
Manually Creating an ELF Executable - A guide that demonstrates how ELF binaries work, and how to build one from scratch using only a hex editor.
Porting Newlib - A guide on porting a common C library to your OS in progress
Using Libsupc++ - A guide on porting libsupc++ to get more out of the features of C++
Porting Python - A guide on compiling python for your OS