This code is meant to show how the hardware interrupt generated when you press a key can be handled by replacing the seg:offset specified in the IVT (interrupt vector table). This normally points to a BIOS routine. To find the entry in the IVT, multiply the interrupt number by 4 (which is the size of each entry).
This key handler just displays the scan code without conversion to ASCII, buffering, or handling extended keys. The reason for doing this is to not muddle up the basic idea, which is to provide input, as well as output, in its most simple form.
I will not go into the hows and whys of reading the ports involved in a key press. Suffice it to say that you are communicating with actual chips (or parts of chips), not some software intermediary. I personally feel it is good to remember that, no matter what level of abstraction you work at, you are ultimately telling hardware what to do.
I will point out the turning the keyboard on/off through port 0x61 is given in its complete form, some of which might not be needed, depending on the system.
;========================================== ; nasmw boot.asm -f bin -o boot.bin ; partcopy boot.bin 0 200 -f0 [ORG 0x7c00] ; add to offsets jmp start %include "print.inc" start: xor ax, ax ; make it zero mov ds, ax ; DS=0 mov ss, ax ; stack starts at 0 mov sp, 0x9c00 ; 200h past code start mov ax, 0xb800 ; text video memory mov es, ax cli ;no interruptions mov bx, 0x09 ;hardware interrupt # shl bx, 2 ;multiply by 4 xor ax, ax mov gs, ax ;start of memory mov [gs:bx], word keyhandler mov [gs:bx+2], ds ; segment sti jmp $ ; loop forever keyhandler: in al, 0x60 ; get key data mov bl, al ; save it mov byte [port60], al in al, 0x61 ; keybrd control mov ah, al or al, 0x80 ; disable bit 7 out 0x61, al ; send it back xchg ah, al ; get original out 0x61, al ; send that back mov al, 0x20 ; End of Interrupt out 0x20, al ; and bl, 0x80 ; key released jnz done ; don't repeat mov ax, [port60] mov word [reg16], ax call printreg16 done: iret port60 dw 0 times 510-($-$$) db 0 ; fill sector w/ 0's dw 0xAA55 ; req'd by some BIOSes ;==========================================
Just in case it wasn't clear, we have moved the printing routines from part 4 (dochar, sprint, cprint, and printreg16) into an include file, which we will name print.inc.
;========================================== ; print.inc ;---------------------- dochar: call cprint ; print one character sprint: lodsb ; string char to AL cmp al, 0 jne dochar ; else, we're done add byte [ypos], 1 ;down one row mov byte [xpos], 0 ;back to left ret cprint: mov ah, 0x0F ; attrib = white on black mov cx, ax ; save char/attribute movzx ax, byte [ypos] mov dx, 160 ; 2 bytes (char/attrib) mul dx ; for 80 columns movzx bx, byte [xpos] shl bx, 1 ; times 2 to skip attrib mov di, 0 ; start of video memory add di, ax ; add y offset add di, bx ; add x offset mov ax, cx ; restore char/attribute stosw ; write char/attribute add byte [xpos], 1 ; advance to right ret ;------------------------------------ printreg16: mov di, outstr16 mov ax, [reg16] mov si, hexstr mov cx, 4 ;four places hexloop: rol ax, 4 ;leftmost will mov bx, ax ; become and bx, 0x0f ; rightmost mov bl, [si + bx];index into hexstr mov [di], bl inc di dec cx jnz hexloop mov si, outstr16 call sprint ret ;------------------------------------ xpos db 0 ypos db 0 hexstr db '0123456789ABCDEF' outstr16 db '0000', 0 ;register value string reg16 dw 0 ; pass values to printreg16
- hardware fun http://chip.ms.mff.cuni.cz/pcguts/ (https://web.archive.org/web/20020801235709/http://chip.ms.mff.cuni.cz/~pcguts/)
- Intel's Summer Reading List http://developer.intel.com/vtune/cbts/refman.htm
- John Fine links to hardware programming http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Peaks/8600/device.html (http://web.archive.org/web/20090723073639/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Peaks/8600/device.html)